Where is the future of the journalism industry now? This is a problem that is difficult to solve.
The main revenue of today's news needs to depend on digital technology, but at the same time, the development of its advertising revenue is tightly controlled by large platforms such as Google and Facebook.
The news media Alliance, which represents more than 2000 news organizations in North America, petitioned the U.S. Congress this week to seek a change in antitrust law, Alliance the News industry in a collective way, and to negotiate with Google and the Facebook digital "duopoly" (duopoly).
This may reflect the news industry's desperation to change the future of journalism through the law of repair.
Facebook and Google, two of tech giants, make the news media love and hate
The Western proverb has the cloud: "With you I can not live, without you I also can not survive." "(I cant live with your, nor without you.) This phrase is used to describe the relationship between journalism and the scientific community.
In recent years, Google and Facebook giants have almost dominated the push for online advertising and news. They have replaced the platform role of the media in the past, with little cost of access to news content and user data, while also controlling the distribution of news ads.
This has forced rival rivals, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post, to call the U.S. Congress for help.
Quality news is the key to maintaining democracy and the core of civil society. In order to ensure the future of such news, news organizations must be able to negotiate in a collective way and in the digital age to actually control the delivery and access to the digital platform of the audience.
Chavin, chairman of the News Media Alliance (NMA)
Under the current United States federal anti-Tottenham Act, competitors are not allowed to coordinate corporate decision-making and marketing strategies with each other. The news media Alliance believes that if Congress can provide the right to press exemptions, they may be able to negotiate more forcefully with Google and Facebook, seek better ways to protect digital wisdom and property, make digital models more supportive, and make revenue and user data more equitably distributed.
There is a lot of doubt as to whether the press petition will be supported by the legislature and the executive.
In the past, the DOJ had little support for granting exemptions to specific industries against the Trump, and the Republican-led Congress was unfriendly to the news media, and it was unclear how the news could be pushed forward and the technology industry. The only certainty is the pervasive sense of urgency in the news industry, which requires extraordinary means of time.
Where's the news?
The biggest reason why American journalism is asking Congress for help is that advertising is missing.
The cost of digital advertising in the US this year, estimated at 60% per cent by Google and Facebook, is still increasing in the advertising market. Last year, the cost of digital advertising grew by nearly 12 billion dollars, and 77% of the increase was channelled to Google and Facebook.
According to emarketer statistics, US digital advertising grew nearly 12 billion dollars in 2016, with 40 cents per $ A of growth flowing to Google and 37 cents to Facebook.
It seemed to the news organizations that they were sowing their tears and watching others rejoice in harvesting. Google and Facebook's platform, the advertising revenue that should belong to news organizations as their own bag of things, journalism can only be angrenbixi, expecting its own articles to be more visible and more appealing, and competing with other content farms to "copy and paste" products, sensational headline parties, fake news, and cute cat and dog movies.
But if you look at Facebook and Google, you may also be feel and feel that you have worked hard to work with the press. If it weren't for Google and Facebook, the traditional media would not be able to reach the millions of users who could not have touched it in the past.
Facebook has just met with executives in journalism this week to discuss how to offer news-booking services on Facebook's platform. In the past, they have also been trying to improve the exposure of news on the platform and how news is more effective at selling ads on Facebook's "real-Time article" (Instant Articles).
Similarly, Google makes similar efforts through its news labs. It changes the algorithm so that quality news can appear in the search results of a more prominent position. They also offer newsroom new tools to help with news innovation and increase online revenue.
Despite the efforts of the two technology platforms to find a cooperative model for news, the biggest problem between journalism and the technology platform still lies in the misalignment of revenues. In the past, journalism was the biggest platform, with all the content, users and advertising revenue in the bag. Now, in the ecosystem of Facebook or Google, journalism is like tenant farmers, and the platform can say that "the whole bowl is full" to the best content, user data, advertising revenue, and many news organizations can only from the flow of a scrape.
News industry attached to science and technology platform
How did this dependency happen? Alexis Madrigal, author of The Atlantic Journal, discusses the news industry, Google, and Facebook separately.
First, the "Original Sin" of journalism:
The news industry believes that the initial "original Sin", out of the news compiled by the decision to let their content free internet access. This is not a very good reason, but it is a common perception in many journalism.
Initially, the dissemination of news on the Internet should not be based on a general view of the pay mechanism in newspapers and magazines. Connectivity is the key to the operation of the entire network, allowing everyone to access these links to maximize the value of the network.
Most newspapers follow this principle. But all of a sudden they realized that they were in a completely different field of business.
Second, Google to convert all news pages into data, as a search engine ammunition.
Google is now the best place to query the world for information. The scholar does not go out, does not need the newspaper, the television, the radio, also can know the world matter, as long as the home has the Google.
At the same time, Google is starting to envision its own business model, which is the link to the sponsored ads next to the search results. They create an easy way to buy ads and also tell you how well you buy ads.
As a result, many small, local advertisers prefer to advertise in Google, rather than advertised in the newspaper. In addition, Craigslist took away the original newspaper classified ads business, newspaper advertising is naturally precarious.
This happens regardless of whether there is a so-called original sin. Because the business model of newspapers has been destroyed, their business has been lost to the efficiency of the technology industry.
In the new World of advertising, readers are not worth much. A visit is worth only a few cents, so the number of news must be in the hope of size. More visitors represent more browsing times, more visits are more ads, and a few cents to add up, perhaps to pay for the journalists ' expensive salaries.
Size, flow, visitors, browsing numbers, ad inventory, are now the new targets for journalism.
Third, who has the scale? Facebook
Facebook has long been happy to send news content to its readers, but it's not about the goals of their community sites. But beneath the sun, Facebook's sheer size has brought about a monster-class change in the news industry. On the one hand it is beginning to favour the news content provided by the better media. These publishers ' news is more likely to appear in your dynamic news than other general-media or other people's articles. More importantly, in the long term, Facebook has also started to offer different ads for different media brands. They recommend that users follow the news media and provide more media pages to push their news content.
The strategy has really come into effect, and Facebook has created mass media traffic. Many of the websites have tens of millions of of individual visitors, many times more than the largest newspapers in circulation. Today's circulation in the US is about 3 million. ）
BuzzFeed analyzes the significant impact Facebook has had on 200 of sites from October 2011 to October 2013.
This, however, has left journalism at the mercy of the Facebook dynamic messaging algorithm.
Each time the transfer of the algorithm, it may mean a large number of news site browsing (or a bumper harvest), for example, when Facebook began to pay attention to the content of the audio and video parts, many media have begun to turn to the production of audio and video content, equal to the way Facebook led the nose.
To make things worse, the sheer size of Facebook actually leads to a flow of inflation. Overnight, traffic is everywhere, and advertisers are willing to pay less for the flow of money. In other words, journalism must now depend on the size of Facebook to maintain its operations.
Facebook controls the eyeballs of 2 billion of people on its platform, and the trend of news is distorted by Facebook's likes and dislikes. For example, the virus in the Community web site is a proliferation phenomenon that makes everything more extreme. A growing minority of news will attract more and more alarming traffic. So much journalism has concentrated on a handful of news themes and events, because most of the traffic on Facebook may be around a news event, such as an Asian doctor being dragged down by United Airlines, or a strange word covfefe Trump on Twitter.
The information ecosystem created by Google and Facebook has affected the bizarre evolution of journalism. The most obvious example is the false news that was fabricated during the United States election, and the painstaking digging of serious news, while the truth was overwhelmed, distorted and even spoiled.
This is perhaps the ultimate dilemma for journalism: in a time when we need better journalism, journalism is still struggling to survive.
The news business ' ever closer to rock bottom (the Atlantic)
New outlets to seek bargaining rights against Google (New York Times)
News publishers take on Facebook, Google (Wall Street Journal)