ZeroNet is very popular recently, especially in the Chinese user base. ZeroNet is a distributed Internet that does not like a traditional Internet that requires a physical server to set up a Web site, but every user can act as a server, store some data and distribute it to other users. The specific introduction is not much to say, a search a lot, to talk about why it will fail.
I probably come into contact with the network for the first time around 2001. Since then, there has been news about distributed computing, or a "decentralized" system with popular words. And as time goes on, these systems do not have a success.
One of the earliest impressions is looking for extraterrestrial life project SETI @ home, which is still alive and is one of the most active of all distributed computing projects known. According to January this year, SETI @ home has more than 5 million active users. This figure looks a lot, but the WeChat of the daily active users more than 100 million. In other words, every 100 WeChat users have a participation, and your friends may have no one heard of this project.
Of course, distributed projects are also involved in the number of people, such as Bitcoin, hot and humid when 2013 women and children. But in January this year, the core developers of Bitcoin claimed that Bitcoin failed. And the last hype, more than 90% of the volume of transactions in China's bit market, enough to prove a "distributed" project failure.
ZeroNet is a recent distributed attempt, but it can not escape the fate of failure.
The reason is simple, no commercial company support. As mentioned before, there is no commercial company to support the project, can not be better than a commercial background of the project. And a commercial project, there is no need to completely go to the center.
Perhaps you will not agree, look, BitTorrent project to live very well, we are using BT download, and it itself is also supported by a company with the same name. Yes, BT is a very popular technology, but you heard of Thunder off-line download it? Although the download is still dependent on BT seeds, but generally my approach is to download the seeds down, spread to the Thunder, and then downloaded through the Thunder off-line. Thunder's server provides much faster speed than the BT node, there is no need to use pure P2P download. I believe that most users (at least Chinese friends) are doing so. Dependencies on P2P features no longer exist.
Do not mention Tor, Tor is not a distributed project. Although Tor has its own darknet (Darknet), every site in the net and the Internet site is the same, are dependent on one (or several) central server, there is no distributed features.
Come back to talk about ZeroNet. ZeroNet's vision is to develop a parallel and fully distributed website system with the Internet. Each system in this system are scattered in the various users of the computer, as long as users online, the site will never off the assembly line.
However, this system has a fatal problem: cost. At present, ZeroNet's storage strategy is like this, when you visit a website, is to download all the content of this site down, and then re-share the content to the new users. From a redundant point of view, how many users of a site, how many copies of data redundancy. Of course, wait until the development and growth of ZeroNet, and certainly not everyone will save a copy. We assume that the redundancy is 1000, this figure is actually very conservative, taking into account the average user online time, geographical distribution, etc., to ensure a good access speed, the actual number will certainly be higher than this. Then we look at the total amount of the Internet is how much. It is reported that Google's data volume is 5EB, is 5 billion GB. While the total number of Internet users is currently about 3 billion. With all the data in Google's redundancy, you need an average of 50/30 * 1000 per person, about 1000 GB, or 1 TB of hard drive. Now a 1TB hard drive is priced at about $ 50 (civilian hard drive price, commercial more expensive), 3 billion people a hand, the total value of about 150 billion US dollars. Even if the average life expectancy of a hard drive is five years, then the average cost of a year is 30 billion US dollars.
As a commercial company, Google spent $ 30 billion to run its data center, naturally there is no problem; but for a non-profit project, it can use what way to persuade the world's Internet users to help him pay the bill, I was curious. In fact, the cost of central storage is low, Google spent a year in the data center about $ 12 billion.
If you keep no more content, ZeroNet on the development of such a large scale, not so much size, how to attract users to use. Think about the current trend, video, live, VR, which does not require large capacity storage. Without these daily entertainment content, ZeroNet's development direction will only be like a dark network, as a foreigner, a lot of inflow, illegal, boring content, over time, there is no user.